birds and butterfly

Composition of the birds and butterfly in the Coronation Garden, Tribhuwan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu Nepal

Birds (class Aves or clade Avialae) are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals while A butterfly is a mainly day-flying insect of the order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths. Environment on the earth is deteriorating day by day due to rapid growth of human population in the earth. Valuable greenery and agriculture lands are converting into concrete jungles. Many valuable species like birds, insects, plants etc. are vanishing gradually due to deteriorated environment in most of the urban settlements in the earth. Conservation of potential areas of bird and butterfly habitats, specifically, in the urban settlements is very important. The present case study is done to find out the composition of birds and butterfly in the coronation garden Tribhuwan University,kirtipur Kathmandu. There is pleasing number and species of the birds and butterfly in the coronation garden of Tribhuwan University area. There are about 52 birds and 24 butterflies in the area. It shows us that the environment of the area is good and the diversity of birds and butterfly area shows the healthy ecosystem.

Contents

 

CHAPTER I 1

INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1         Background. 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem.. 3

1.3 Objective. 3

CHAPTER II 4

LITERATURE REVIEW… 4

CHAPTER III 6

METHODOLOGY. 6

3.1 Study area. 6

3.2 Research Design. 7

CHAPTER IV.. 8

RESULT AND DISCUSSION.. 8

CHAPTER VI 10

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 10

REFERENCES. 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background

Birds (class Aves or clade Avialae) are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals. With around 10,000 living species, they are the most specious class of tetrapodvertebrates. All present species belong to the subclass Neornithes, and inhabit ecosystems across the globe, Birds are characterized by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. All living species of birds have wings; the most recent species without wings was the moa, which is generally considered to have become extinct in the 16th century. Wings are evolved forelimbs, and most bird species can fly. Flightless birds include ratites, penguins, and a number of diverse endemic island species. Birds also have unique digestive and respiratory systems that are highly adapted for flight.

Many species undertake long distance annual migrations, and many more perform shorter irregular movements. Birds are social; they communicate using visual signals and through calls and songs, and participate in social behaviors, including cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have polygynous (“many females”) or, rarely, polyandrous (“many males”) breeding systems. Eggs are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching.

The Class for birds is Aves. In bird classification the Class Aves is split up into 23 orders. More than half of the Class of Aves are in the order Passeriformes (aka Passerines). The other smaller orders include: Struthioniformes (Ostriches, emu’s etc.), Galliformes (pheasants, guinea fowl etc.), Piciformes (Barbets, woodpeckers etc.) and many more. The orders are further divided into families. There are 142 families in the Class Aves.

A butterfly is a mainly day-flying insect of the order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths. The butterfly’s life cycle consists of four parts: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Most species are diurnal. Butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. Butterflies are characterized by their scale-covered wings. The coloration of butterfly wings is created by minute scales. These scales are pigmented with melanins that give them blacks and browns, but blues, greens, reds and iridescence are usually created not by pigments but the microstructure of the scales. Butterflies feed primarily on nectar from flowers. Some also derive nourishment from pollen, tree sap, rotting fruit, dung, decaying flesh, and dissolved minerals in wet sand or dirt. Butterflies are important as pollinators for some species of plants although in general they do not carry as much pollen load as bees. They are however capable of moving pollen over greater distances

There are between 15,000 and 20,000 species of butterflies worldwide. Superfamily Hesperioidea includes Hesperiidae as skipper butterflies and Superfamily  Papilionoidea includes the following:

  • Papilionidae – swallowtail butterflies
  • Pieridae – yellow and white butterflies
  • Nymphalidae – brush-footed butterflies
  • Lycaenidae – blues, hairstreaks and gossamer-winged butterflies
  • Riodinidae – punches & judies

The forests of Kathmandu have stood firm as dynasties of rulers have fallen around them. Though only a shadow of their former self, the forests of Kathmandu are important for the hundreds of bird and butterfly species that they sustain. The topographical location of the Kathmandu valley makes it an ideal location for birds to reside or to rest while passing through. Suresh Shakya, an ornithologist, explains that with the Tibetan border in the north and India to the south a few hours flight away for a bird, the Kathmandu valley is an important stopover place for birds and butterfly.

Bird and butterfly watching in Kathmandu is a relatively cheap way to escape city life, if you have your own birding equipment. This fact coupled with the easy access to birding areas in and around the valley are added incentives. Each bird watching site in the valley is unique. Some are near human settlements, others are nestled in protected forests, and others fall within community forests. This diversity of watching areas gives the birder a chance to observe a variety of bird and butterfly species within a small area.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Environment on the earth is deteriorating day by day due to rapid growth of human population in the earth. Valuable greenery and agriculture lands are converting into concrete jungles. Many valuable species like birds, insects, plants etc. are vanishing gradually due to deteriorated environment in most of the urban settlements in the earth. Conservation of potential areas of bird habitats, specifically, in the urban settlements is very important. It is very important to know what spec ies of birds, animals, plants, etc. can be found in that area and what has to be done for their conservation. Habitats of birds are also taken as good indicator to know the status of environment in a region.

Today an alarming number of 149 bird species (17%) are considered threatened in Nepal. At the same time, as many as 61 species are critically endangered, 38 endangered and 50 vulnerable (BCN 2010). We have several areas of pristine characters with incredibly sound in bird diversity within the Kathmandu valley. The expansion of urbanization and increasing human encroachments has shrunken the forest so birds and butterfly are forced to cope with the left over patch of tiny portion of the greeneries and eventually move towards the edge of the Kathmandu valley. Some small portions of green patches present around the Kathmandu valley are the good soure of information of the birds and butterfly diversity.

There is great need of birds and butterfly diversity study to know the status of biodiversity in these areas and develop various conservation strategies. Meanwhile these patches in and around the Kathmandu area  seem to fall under the less prioritized area of government and non-government organizations working for conservation. At the same time some research are being started to study the status of the birds and butterfly in these patches that act as the island biogeography. Therefore the study is carried out to know the current status of the birds and butterfly and birds in these small patches.

 

1.3 Objective

The objective of this case study is to observe the common birds and butterfly present in the area. The specific objective is as follow:

  • To document the birds and butterfly diversity in the area
  • To find out the major family of birds and butterfly found in the area

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

The history of bird watching, like many other activities learned from the West, began in Kathmandu. Since early foreigner residents were forbidden to travel outside the Kathmandu valley, early bird enthusiasts like Hodgson had only the valley to scour for birds. Kathmandu’s forests were accessible and also protected, given that most of them were the hunting reserves of the ruling class. The Godavari forest was the exclusive hunting reserve for expatriates before and during the Rana rule. Thus, the forests of Kathmandu were a safe haven for birds, provided they survived the gun.

In the late sixties, Karna Shakya was a young wildlife officer. He had travelled to far-flung areas of Nepal with his friend John Blower and Bob Fleming, an ornithologist, to study the country’s biodiversity. Shakya contracted Bob Fleming’s passion for birds and became an avid bird watcher. And he spread this passion to many others; and today, many years after leaving the forestry department, his passion for bird watching has not ceased.

That passion for birds and wildlife culminated in the establishment of the first institution for bird watching in Nepal. In 1976, Shakya and H.S. Nepali started the Nepal Bird Watching Club. Establishing a bird club in those days was no small feat, and getting people to join was an achievement. Shakya’s article written to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Bird Conservation Nepal, offers a glimpse into the club’s early days, which were a struggle. To promote bird watching among the public, Shakya and Nepali took students for bird watching trips to the nearby jungles, villages and other bird-rich areas in the vicinity of Kathmandu. Bird watching trips were organized every Saturday from the Kathmandu Guest House in Thamel. The then popular sites for bird watching were Rani Ban, Godavari, Shivapuri, Nagarjun, Manohari and Taudaha.

Despite the incessant pressure of humans, the avifauna of the Kathmandu valley is immense. The total number of bird species in the Kathmandu valley comes to 534 species, which includes 18 globally threatened species. The valley’s forest cover consists of Shivapuri National Park, the Phulchowki forests and the forests of Nagarjun. Lesser forested areas include the Godavari Botanical Gardens, Rani Ban, Gokarna and the urban forest cover in the Pashupatinath area. Two of the total 27 Important Bird Areas of the country are in the Kathmandu valley – the Phulchowki Mountain Forests and the Shivapuri National Park.In addition, the wetlands and open fields inside the valley make up a diverse habitat for many species of birds.

The most popular bird watching spot is the Phulchoki hill, the highest peak on the Valley rim situated 20 km South East of Kathmandu, with some 265 species recorded to date. The birds seen here included babblers, warblers, tits, thrushes, Minivets, woodpeckers, eagles and many migrant birds. Godavari, at the foot of Phulchoki hill where the Royal Botanical Garden is situated, records over 100 species of birds including the lesser racket-tailed drongo, Tibetan siskin and the spotted fork tail.

In time, the ravages of human population growth were felt immensely by the birds and, realizing this downward spiraling in bird numbers, the Nepal Bird Watching Club decided that the birds needed protection. Consequently, in 1982, the club was renamed as Bird Conservation Nepal (BCN). Today, BCN carries on the heritage of bird watching through frequent bird watching trips, and its members actively advocate for bird conservation.

Diversity of butterfly was studied in Thankot and Syuchatar VDCs of Kathmandu District, during June 2007-March 2008. A total of 43 species of butterflies belonging to 32 genera and 9 families were recorded with Nymphalidae as the most commonly recorded family and Libytheidae and Acreidae are the least represented families. The species were collected in summer and winter seasons. Bushes, cultivated land, open field and forest were selected to study the habitats of butterflies. Bushes were found to be the most preferable habitat. Seasonal variation was also observed in some species. Three species namely Ypthima baldus, Ypthima nareda and Precis iphita showed color variation. Troides aeacus, a CITES listed species was also observed in this region.

 

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Study area

Tribhuvan University (TU) is a public university in Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Established in 1959, TU is the oldest of the five universities in Nepal. The university provides undergraduate and graduate education.  It is located in the prime location near to the Kathmandu valley and act as the idle site for the resting of the several birds and butterfly of the valley. Besides that since this is an area where educational institutions are situated it is still maintaining its charm and beauty. There are few stories of deforestation and forest degradation. At the same time establishment of Coronation garden has helped to maintain the diversity of the place.

 

3.2 Research Design

Direct count of the birds and butterfly was carried out. The birds were counted using the binoculars while a net was used to catch the butterfly of the area. The field observation was conducted for 45 consecutive days (at least 4 days in each plot) in the morning, noon and afternoon. Thus, a total of days in the month of July 15 to August 30 were spent for the survey of birds and butterfly of the year 2013 to determine the diversity of the bird and butterfly visit at the study site.

Assessment of Bird Composition of Corontion Garden, T.U. Forest

 

Primary Data

1 Field Observation

2 Informal Discussions

 

Secondary Data

Literature Review

 

Data Entry and Analysis

 

Draft Report Writing

 

Review of Draft Report

 

Final Report Writing and Submission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 2: Flow Diagram Showing Research Design

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER IV

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The growth of urban population in Kathmandu has resulted in increased degradation of its forests and consequently increased recreational pressure on them. The coronation garden present in the Tribhuwan University area is able to maintain the greenery in and around its premises. The coronation garden is the main area for the attraction of the birds and butterfly. Though it is spread in the area of only about sixteen hectors it has many floras and some fauna. It is one of the best forest patches present in the Kathmandu area. The hills and lake are only few kilometers far from the coronation garden so the distribution of the birds and butterfly is pleasurable.

Bird’s distribution

There were almost 52 types of birds in the area. The name of birds and their family is stated in the annex 1. The different types and number of the birds were noticed. We can see many of the crow and parakeet on the different way of the premises of the Tribhuwan University but if we go by and observe in and around the coronation garden we can see and hear lots of the birds.

Bird’s composition

Muscicapidae is the major family present in the area. The pie chart of the major family of birds is shown in the following pie chart. The birds that were included in the other family’s the number of birds were limited to two to three in number so the comparison between the family was done with these major families are only.

 

Fig 2: Major composition of the birds family in the area.

Butterfly distribution

The central region of Nepal was once forested (Upreti & Ghimire 1982).  These hills and valleys are now cultivated and very little forest is left (Chalise 2010). Some forested areas of this region are incorporated into the protected area network like the Langtang National Park and Nagarjun-Shivapuri National Park. These activities have diversified the composition of the birds and butterfly number in the area. In the coronation garden of the Tribhuwan University area there are 24 different types of the butterfly. The name and their respected family is stated in the table two.

Butterfly composition

Similar to the global context Nymphalidae has the highest species in this area. The major family and the percentage of the species is shown in the following figure.

 

 

Fig 3: Composition of the different family of butterfly in the area.

This figure shows us that there are about 52% of the Nymphalidae  family  in the area  while the Heteropterine were least in the number. This may be due to the geographic location and climate of the area.

 

 

CHAPTER VI

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

There is pleasing number and species of the birds and butterfly in the coronation garden of Tribhuwan University area. There are about 52 birds and 24 butterflies in the area. It shows us that the environment of the area is good and the diversity of birds and butterfly area shows the healthy ecosystem.

Birds and butterfly are very visible, quite common, and offer easy opportunities to observe their diverse plumage and behaviors. Birds are excellent natural indicators of the health of many ecosystems. They are the literal canary in the coalmine–when birdsor butterfly disappear from an area, it normally signals the deteriorating health of the entire ecosystem.

The evidence suggests that a network of sites selected as important for birds will capture most other biodiversity and that they are very useful (although still imperfect) indicators of species richness and endemism patterns. Changes in bird or butterfly populations can also provide a useful indication of broader environmental change.

The evidence so far suggests that on a local scale, patterns of bird distribution may not always match well the distribution patterns of other taxa (Prendergast 1993, Pearson 1995, Lawton et al. 1998); nevertheless a network of sites selected as important for birds will capture most other biodiversity (Howard et al. 1998, Brooks et al. 2001). Birds and butterfly are likely to work better as biodiversity indicator taxa in terrestrial habitats (especially well-vegetated ones) than in either freshwater or marine habitats. Changes in bird populations tend to integrate a set of ecological factors. Given adequate ecological knowledge, they can provide a useful indication of environmental change (Bennun and Fanshawe 1997, Donald et al. 2001, Gregory et al. 2003).

There is no evidence of forest deforestation in the area at the same time some area of the forest is used for the construction of the infracture in the area. This has affected the distribution and diversity of birds and butterfly of the area. More collaborative effort is to be launched to conserve and maintain the diversity of the coronation garden. The simple approach of adding more trees in and around the adjoining area and reducing manual forest degradation in the area will add more birds and butterfly in the area.

REFERENCES

Ambuel, B. and Temple, S.A.  1983. Area-dependent  Changes in the Bird Communities  and Vegetation of  Southern Wisconsin Forests.  Ecology 64:  1057-1068.

BCN. 2010. The State of Nepal’s Birds.

Bhuju, U.R., Shakya, P.R.,  Basnet, T.B. and Shrestha, S. 2007.  Nepal  Biodiversity Resource   Book.   Protected   Areas,   Ramsar   Sites,   and   World   Heritage   Sites. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Ministry of Environment, Science   and   Technology,   in   cooperation   with   United   Nations   Environment Programme, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Kathmandu, Nepal. ISBN 978-92-9115-033-5

Blair,  R.B.  and  A.E.  Launer  1997.  Butterfly  diversity and human land use: species assemblages along an urban  gradient. Biological  Conservation 80:  113–125.

Blake, J.G. and Karr, J.R. 1984. Species Composition  of  Bird Communities  and  the  Conservation  Benefit  of  Large  Versus Small Forests. Biol.  Conserv.  30:  173-187.

BLI. 2001. Threatened Birds of Asia. The Bird Life International Red Data Book. Cambridge, U.K.

BPP. 1995a. Red Data Book of the Fauna of Nepal. Biodiversity Profiles Project. Technical Publication no. 4. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal.

BPP. 1995b. Biodiversity Profile Project for the Mid-hills Physiographic Zone. Publication No. 13. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forest and Soil Consevation, Government of Nepal.

Foristera, M.L., A.C. McCallb, N.J. Sanders, J.A. Fordycec, J.H. Thorned, J. O’Briend, D.P. Waetjend and A.M. Shapiro. 2010. Compounded effects of climate change and habitat alteration shift patterns of butterfly diversity. PNAS 107: 2088-2092.

Grimmett, R., Inskipp, C and Inskipp, T. 2000. Birds of Nepal. Prakash Book Depot, New Delhi, India.

Hunter Jr., M.L. and P. Yonzon. 1993. Altitudinal distributions of birds, mammals, people, forests, and parks in Nepal. Conservation Biology 7: 420-423.

Jackson, J.K. 1994. Manual of  Afforestation in Nepal. Forest Research and Survey Center, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Kehimkar,  I.  2008. The  book  of  Indian  butterflies. Bombay  Natural  History  Society,  Oxford University Press.

Manandhar, R., Lalchan, L.J and Shrestha, P. 1992. Ornithological Survey of Chitlang Forest. Report Submitted to Oriental Bird Club, Great Britian.

McIntyre, N.E. 1995. Effects of Forest Patch Size on Avian Diversity. Landscape Ecology vol.  10 no.  2 pp 85-99 (1995) SPB Academic Publishing

Numata,  M.  1983.  Ecological Studies in the Nepal Himalayas.  In M.  Numata  (ed.)  Ecology  and conservation,  the  selected  paper  of   Makotot Numata: 247-259. The Himalayan Committee of Chiba University, Japan.

Panthi, K. 1997. Study on Seasonal Diversity of Birds in Gokarna Sanitary Landfill Site and Its Suburb in Kathmandu. M.Sc. Dissertation Submitted to Central Department of Zoology, T.U.

Robson, C. 1999. Nepal Wren Babbler Pnoepyga immaculate : No More Nepal Endemic. Danphe. Vol. 8, No. 1. Pp 1.

Shah, M. 2000. Study on Diversity of Birds with the Seasonal Change in and around Taudaha, Kathmandu. M.Sc. Dissertation Submitted to Central Department of Zoology, T.U.

Uniyal, V.P. 2007. Butterflies in the Great Himalayan Conservation Landscape, Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalaya. Entomon 32:119-127.

Valcu, M. 2006. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species Diversity at the Interface between Forest and Reed-bed. Biodiversity and Conservation 15:3459–3467

ANNEX

The list of the birds and their respective family.

S.No. Family Common Name Scientific Name
1 Accipitridae Black kite Milvus migrans
2 Accipitridae Speppe Eagle Aquila nipelensis
3 Alcedinidae White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
4 Ardeidae Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis
5 Cerylidae Pied kingfisher Ceryle rudus
6 Cisticolidae Common tailor bird Orthotomus sutorius
7 Columbidae Rock pigeon Columba livia
8 Columbidae Spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis
9 Corvidae House crow Corvus splendens
10 Cuculidae Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopaceus
11 Cuculidae Eurasian Cuckoo Cuculus canorus
12 Decelonidae White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
13 Dicruridae Ashy drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus
14 Dicruridae Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus
15 Falconidae Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
16 Fringillidae Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus
17 Hedydipna Collared Sunbird Hedydipna collaris
18 Hirundinidae Barn swallow Hirundo rustica
19 Hirundinidae Red Rumped swallow Cecropis daurica
20 Malaconotidae Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach
21 Megalaimidae Blue throat barbet Megalaima asiatica
22 Muscicapidae Blue fronted Redstard Phoenicurus frontalis
23 Muscicapidae Common Stone Chat Saxicola torquatus
24 Muscicapidae Slaty Flycatcher Melaenornis fischeri
25 Muscicapidae Spotted flycatcher Melaenornis striata
26 Muscicapidae  Indian Bush Robin Saxicoloides fulicatus
27 Musicapidae Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica
28 Musicapidae Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis
29 Musicapidae Verditer Flycatcher Eumyias thalassina
30 Oriolidae Indian Golden Oriole Oriolus kundoo
31 Passeridae Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus
32 Passeridae House Sparrow Cisticolidae
33 Passeridae Long-tailed Minivet Pericrocotus ethologus
34 Passeridae Paddy field Pipit Anthus rufulus
35 Passeridae Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus
36 Passerines Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer
37 Phylloscopidae Scaly brested munia Lonchura punctulata
38 Picidae Fulvous Breasted Woodpecker Dendrocopos macei
39 Ploceidae Baya weaver Ploceus philippinus
40 Psittaculidae Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria
41 Psittaculidae Ring-necked Parakeet Psittacula krameri
42 Ramphastide Great Barbet Megalaima virens
43 Strigidae Asian Barred owlet Glaucidium cuculoides
44 Strigidae Common owlet Athene brama
45 Strigidae Spotted owlet Athene brama
46 Sturnidae Common myna Acridotheres tristis
47 Sturnidae Jungle myna Acridotheres fuscus
48 Sylviidae Grey-hooded Warbler Seicercus xanthoschistos
49 Sylviidae Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus
50 Sylviidae Tickell’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus affinis
51 Turdidae Oriental magpie robin Copsychus saularis
52 Turdidae Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata

 

 

 

 

 

 

The list of the butterfly and their respective family

S.No. Family Common Name Scientific Name
1 Hesperiidae Tricolor Pied Flat Coladenia indrani
2 Lycaenidae White Banded Hedge Blue Lycaenopsis iranspectus
3 Nymphalidae Common Jester Symbrenthia lilaea
4 Nymphalidae Common leopard Phalanta phalantha
5 Nymphalidae Common Sailor Neptis hylas
6 Nymphalidae Common Tiger Danaus geutia
7 Nymphalidae Danaid Eggfly Hypolimiini misippus
8 Nymphalidae Indian Crow Euploea core
9 Nymphalidae Indian Fritillary Argynnis hyperbius
10 Nymphalidae Indian Tortoise Shell Aglais kaschmirensis
11 Nymphalidae Lemon Pansy Junonia lemonias
12 Nymphalidae Peacock  pansy Junonai almana
13 Nymphalidae Plain Tiger Danus chrysippus
14 Nymphalidae Yellow Coaster Acraea issoria
15 Nymphalidae Yellow Pancy Junonia hierta
16 papilionidae Common blue bottle Graphium sarpedon
17 Papilionidae Common mermon Papili memmon
18 Papilionidae Common Rose Pachiopta aristolochiae
19 Papilionidae Common Windmill Atrophaneura polyeuctes
20 Pieridae Grass yellow Eurema hecabe
21 Pieridae Indian Cabbage white Pieris canidia
22 Pieridae. Cabbage White Pieris brassicae
23 Pieridae. Common Brimstone Gonepteryx ramni
24 Pieridae. Dark Clouded yellow Colias croceus

 

 

 

 

Some photographic representation of the case study on birds and butterfly

Using the net to capture the butterfly T.U. Coronation garden
Some butterflies Using the binoculars to identify the birds
The forest in the T.U. area Common birds in the area

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