Composition of the birds and butterfly in the Coronation Garden, Tribhuwan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu Nepal
Birds (class Aves or clade Avialae) are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals while A butterfly is a mainly day-flying insect of the order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths. Environment on the earth is deteriorating day by day due to rapid growth of human population in the earth. Valuable greenery and agriculture lands are converting into concrete jungles. Many valuable species like birds, insects, plants etc. are vanishing gradually due to deteriorated environment in most of the urban settlements in the earth. Conservation of potential areas of bird and butterfly habitats, specifically, in the urban settlements is very important. The present case study is done to find out the composition of birds and butterfly in the coronation garden Tribhuwan University,kirtipur Kathmandu. There is pleasing number and species of the birds and butterfly in the coronation garden of Tribhuwan University area. There are about 52 birds and 24 butterflies in the area. It shows us that the environment of the area is good and the diversity of birds and butterfly area shows the healthy ecosystem.
CHAPTER I 1
1.1 Background. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem.. 3
1.3 Objective. 3
CHAPTER II 4
LITERATURE REVIEW… 4
CHAPTER III 6
3.1 Study area. 6
3.2 Research Design. 7
CHAPTER IV.. 8
RESULT AND DISCUSSION.. 8
CHAPTER VI 10
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 10
Birds (class Aves or clade Avialae) are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals. With around 10,000 living species, they are the most specious class of tetrapodvertebrates. All present species belong to the subclass Neornithes, and inhabit ecosystems across the globe, Birds are characterized by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. All living species of birds have wings; the most recent species without wings was the moa, which is generally considered to have become extinct in the 16th century. Wings are evolved forelimbs, and most bird species can fly. Flightless birds include ratites, penguins, and a number of diverse endemic island species. Birds also have unique digestive and respiratory systems that are highly adapted for flight.
Many species undertake long distance annual migrations, and many more perform shorter irregular movements. Birds are social; they communicate using visual signals and through calls and songs, and participate in social behaviors, including cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have polygynous (“many females”) or, rarely, polyandrous (“many males”) breeding systems. Eggs are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching.
The Class for birds is Aves. In bird classification the Class Aves is split up into 23 orders. More than half of the Class of Aves are in the order Passeriformes (aka Passerines). The other smaller orders include: Struthioniformes (Ostriches, emu’s etc.), Galliformes (pheasants, guinea fowl etc.), Piciformes (Barbets, woodpeckers etc.) and many more. The orders are further divided into families. There are 142 families in the Class Aves.
A butterfly is a mainly day-flying insect of the order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths. The butterfly’s life cycle consists of four parts: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Most species are diurnal. Butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. Butterflies are characterized by their scale-covered wings. The coloration of butterfly wings is created by minute scales. These scales are pigmented with melanins that give them blacks and browns, but blues, greens, reds and iridescence are usually created not by pigments but the microstructure of the scales. Butterflies feed primarily on nectar from flowers. Some also derive nourishment from pollen, tree sap, rotting fruit, dung, decaying flesh, and dissolved minerals in wet sand or dirt. Butterflies are important as pollinators for some species of plants although in general they do not carry as much pollen load as bees. They are however capable of moving pollen over greater distances
There are between 15,000 and 20,000 species of butterflies worldwide. Superfamily Hesperioidea includes Hesperiidae as skipper butterflies and Superfamily Papilionoidea includes the following:
- Papilionidae – swallowtail butterflies
- Pieridae – yellow and white butterflies
- Nymphalidae – brush-footed butterflies
- Lycaenidae – blues, hairstreaks and gossamer-winged butterflies
- Riodinidae – punches & judies
The forests of Kathmandu have stood firm as dynasties of rulers have fallen around them. Though only a shadow of their former self, the forests of Kathmandu are important for the hundreds of bird and butterfly species that they sustain. The topographical location of the Kathmandu valley makes it an ideal location for birds to reside or to rest while passing through. Suresh Shakya, an ornithologist, explains that with the Tibetan border in the north and India to the south a few hours flight away for a bird, the Kathmandu valley is an important stopover place for birds and butterfly.
Bird and butterfly watching in Kathmandu is a relatively cheap way to escape city life, if you have your own birding equipment. This fact coupled with the easy access to birding areas in and around the valley are added incentives. Each bird watching site in the valley is unique. Some are near human settlements, others are nestled in protected forests, and others fall within community forests. This diversity of watching areas gives the birder a chance to observe a variety of bird and butterfly species within a small area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Environment on the earth is deteriorating day by day due to rapid growth of human population in the earth. Valuable greenery and agriculture lands are converting into concrete jungles. Many valuable species like birds, insects, plants etc. are vanishing gradually due to deteriorated environment in most of the urban settlements in the earth. Conservation of potential areas of bird habitats, specifically, in the urban settlements is very important. It is very important to know what spec ies of birds, animals, plants, etc. can be found in that area and what has to be done for their conservation. Habitats of birds are also taken as good indicator to know the status of environment in a region.
Today an alarming number of 149 bird species (17%) are considered threatened in Nepal. At the same time, as many as 61 species are critically endangered, 38 endangered and 50 vulnerable (BCN 2010). We have several areas of pristine characters with incredibly sound in bird diversity within the Kathmandu valley. The expansion of urbanization and increasing human encroachments has shrunken the forest so birds and butterfly are forced to cope with the left over patch of tiny portion of the greeneries and eventually move towards the edge of the Kathmandu valley. Some small portions of green patches present around the Kathmandu valley are the good soure of information of the birds and butterfly diversity.
There is great need of birds and butterfly diversity study to know the status of biodiversity in these areas and develop various conservation strategies. Meanwhile these patches in and around the Kathmandu area seem to fall under the less prioritized area of government and non-government organizations working for conservation. At the same time some research are being started to study the status of the birds and butterfly in these patches that act as the island biogeography. Therefore the study is carried out to know the current status of the birds and butterfly and birds in these small patches.
The objective of this case study is to observe the common birds and butterfly present in the area. The specific objective is as follow:
- To document the birds and butterfly diversity in the area
- To find out the major family of birds and butterfly found in the area
The history of bird watching, like many other activities learned from the West, began in Kathmandu. Since early foreigner residents were forbidden to travel outside the Kathmandu valley, early bird enthusiasts like Hodgson had only the valley to scour for birds. Kathmandu’s forests were accessible and also protected, given that most of them were the hunting reserves of the ruling class. The Godavari forest was the exclusive hunting reserve for expatriates before and during the Rana rule. Thus, the forests of Kathmandu were a safe haven for birds, provided they survived the gun.
In the late sixties, Karna Shakya was a young wildlife officer. He had travelled to far-flung areas of Nepal with his friend John Blower and Bob Fleming, an ornithologist, to study the country’s biodiversity. Shakya contracted Bob Fleming’s passion for birds and became an avid bird watcher. And he spread this passion to many others; and today, many years after leaving the forestry department, his passion for bird watching has not ceased.
That passion for birds and wildlife culminated in the establishment of the first institution for bird watching in Nepal. In 1976, Shakya and H.S. Nepali started the Nepal Bird Watching Club. Establishing a bird club in those days was no small feat, and getting people to join was an achievement. Shakya’s article written to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Bird Conservation Nepal, offers a glimpse into the club’s early days, which were a struggle. To promote bird watching among the public, Shakya and Nepali took students for bird watching trips to the nearby jungles, villages and other bird-rich areas in the vicinity of Kathmandu. Bird watching trips were organized every Saturday from the Kathmandu Guest House in Thamel. The then popular sites for bird watching were Rani Ban, Godavari, Shivapuri, Nagarjun, Manohari and Taudaha.
Despite the incessant pressure of humans, the avifauna of the Kathmandu valley is immense. The total number of bird species in the Kathmandu valley comes to 534 species, which includes 18 globally threatened species. The valley’s forest cover consists of Shivapuri National Park, the Phulchowki forests and the forests of Nagarjun. Lesser forested areas include the Godavari Botanical Gardens, Rani Ban, Gokarna and the urban forest cover in the Pashupatinath area. Two of the total 27 Important Bird Areas of the country are in the Kathmandu valley – the Phulchowki Mountain Forests and the Shivapuri National Park.In addition, the wetlands and open fields inside the valley make up a diverse habitat for many species of birds.
The most popular bird watching spot is the Phulchoki hill, the highest peak on the Valley rim situated 20 km South East of Kathmandu, with some 265 species recorded to date. The birds seen here included babblers, warblers, tits, thrushes, Minivets, woodpeckers, eagles and many migrant birds. Godavari, at the foot of Phulchoki hill where the Royal Botanical Garden is situated, records over 100 species of birds including the lesser racket-tailed drongo, Tibetan siskin and the spotted fork tail.
In time, the ravages of human population growth were felt immensely by the birds and, realizing this downward spiraling in bird numbers, the Nepal Bird Watching Club decided that the birds needed protection. Consequently, in 1982, the club was renamed as Bird Conservation Nepal (BCN). Today, BCN carries on the heritage of bird watching through frequent bird watching trips, and its members actively advocate for bird conservation.
Diversity of butterfly was studied in Thankot and Syuchatar VDCs of Kathmandu District, during June 2007-March 2008. A total of 43 species of butterflies belonging to 32 genera and 9 families were recorded with Nymphalidae as the most commonly recorded family and Libytheidae and Acreidae are the least represented families. The species were collected in summer and winter seasons. Bushes, cultivated land, open field and forest were selected to study the habitats of butterflies. Bushes were found to be the most preferable habitat. Seasonal variation was also observed in some species. Three species namely Ypthima baldus, Ypthima nareda and Precis iphita showed color variation. Troides aeacus, a CITES listed species was also observed in this region.
3.1 Study area
Tribhuvan University (TU) is a public university in Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Established in 1959, TU is the oldest of the five universities in Nepal. The university provides undergraduate and graduate education. It is located in the prime location near to the Kathmandu valley and act as the idle site for the resting of the several birds and butterfly of the valley. Besides that since this is an area where educational institutions are situated it is still maintaining its charm and beauty. There are few stories of deforestation and forest degradation. At the same time establishment of Coronation garden has helped to maintain the diversity of the place.
3.2 Research Design
Direct count of the birds and butterfly was carried out. The birds were counted using the binoculars while a net was used to catch the butterfly of the area. The field observation was conducted for 45 consecutive days (at least 4 days in each plot) in the morning, noon and afternoon. Thus, a total of days in the month of July 15 to August 30 were spent for the survey of birds and butterfly of the year 2013 to determine the diversity of the bird and butterfly visit at the study site.
Assessment of Bird Composition of Corontion Garden, T.U. Forest
1 Field Observation
2 Informal Discussions
Data Entry and Analysis
Draft Report Writing
Review of Draft Report
Final Report Writing and Submission
Fig 2: Flow Diagram Showing Research Design
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The growth of urban population in Kathmandu has resulted in increased degradation of its forests and consequently increased recreational pressure on them. The coronation garden present in the Tribhuwan University area is able to maintain the greenery in and around its premises. The coronation garden is the main area for the attraction of the birds and butterfly. Though it is spread in the area of only about sixteen hectors it has many floras and some fauna. It is one of the best forest patches present in the Kathmandu area. The hills and lake are only few kilometers far from the coronation garden so the distribution of the birds and butterfly is pleasurable.
There were almost 52 types of birds in the area. The name of birds and their family is stated in the annex 1. The different types and number of the birds were noticed. We can see many of the crow and parakeet on the different way of the premises of the Tribhuwan University but if we go by and observe in and around the coronation garden we can see and hear lots of the birds.
Muscicapidae is the major family present in the area. The pie chart of the major family of birds is shown in the following pie chart. The birds that were included in the other family’s the number of birds were limited to two to three in number so the comparison between the family was done with these major families are only.
Fig 2: Major composition of the birds family in the area.
The central region of Nepal was once forested (Upreti & Ghimire 1982). These hills and valleys are now cultivated and very little forest is left (Chalise 2010). Some forested areas of this region are incorporated into the protected area network like the Langtang National Park and Nagarjun-Shivapuri National Park. These activities have diversified the composition of the birds and butterfly number in the area. In the coronation garden of the Tribhuwan University area there are 24 different types of the butterfly. The name and their respected family is stated in the table two.
Similar to the global context Nymphalidae has the highest species in this area. The major family and the percentage of the species is shown in the following figure.
Fig 3: Composition of the different family of butterfly in the area.
This figure shows us that there are about 52% of the Nymphalidae family in the area while the Heteropterine were least in the number. This may be due to the geographic location and climate of the area.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
There is pleasing number and species of the birds and butterfly in the coronation garden of Tribhuwan University area. There are about 52 birds and 24 butterflies in the area. It shows us that the environment of the area is good and the diversity of birds and butterfly area shows the healthy ecosystem.
Birds and butterfly are very visible, quite common, and offer easy opportunities to observe their diverse plumage and behaviors. Birds are excellent natural indicators of the health of many ecosystems. They are the literal canary in the coalmine–when birdsor butterfly disappear from an area, it normally signals the deteriorating health of the entire ecosystem.
The evidence suggests that a network of sites selected as important for birds will capture most other biodiversity and that they are very useful (although still imperfect) indicators of species richness and endemism patterns. Changes in bird or butterfly populations can also provide a useful indication of broader environmental change.
The evidence so far suggests that on a local scale, patterns of bird distribution may not always match well the distribution patterns of other taxa (Prendergast 1993, Pearson 1995, Lawton et al. 1998); nevertheless a network of sites selected as important for birds will capture most other biodiversity (Howard et al. 1998, Brooks et al. 2001). Birds and butterfly are likely to work better as biodiversity indicator taxa in terrestrial habitats (especially well-vegetated ones) than in either freshwater or marine habitats. Changes in bird populations tend to integrate a set of ecological factors. Given adequate ecological knowledge, they can provide a useful indication of environmental change (Bennun and Fanshawe 1997, Donald et al. 2001, Gregory et al. 2003).
There is no evidence of forest deforestation in the area at the same time some area of the forest is used for the construction of the infracture in the area. This has affected the distribution and diversity of birds and butterfly of the area. More collaborative effort is to be launched to conserve and maintain the diversity of the coronation garden. The simple approach of adding more trees in and around the adjoining area and reducing manual forest degradation in the area will add more birds and butterfly in the area.
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The list of the birds and their respective family.
|S.No.||Family||Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1||Accipitridae||Black kite||Milvus migrans|
|2||Accipitridae||Speppe Eagle||Aquila nipelensis|
|3||Alcedinidae||White-throated Kingfisher||Halcyon smyrnensis|
|4||Ardeidae||Cattle egret||Bubulcus ibis|
|5||Cerylidae||Pied kingfisher||Ceryle rudus|
|6||Cisticolidae||Common tailor bird||Orthotomus sutorius|
|7||Columbidae||Rock pigeon||Columba livia|
|8||Columbidae||Spotted dove||Streptopelia chinensis|
|9||Corvidae||House crow||Corvus splendens|
|10||Cuculidae||Asian Koel||Eudynamys scolopaceus|
|11||Cuculidae||Eurasian Cuckoo||Cuculus canorus|
|12||Decelonidae||White-throated Kingfisher||Halcyon smyrnensis|
|13||Dicruridae||Ashy drongo||Dicrurus leucophaeus|
|14||Dicruridae||Black Drongo||Dicrurus macrocercus|
|15||Falconidae||Cattle Egret||Bubulcus ibis|
|16||Fringillidae||Common Rosefinch||Carpodacus erythrinus|
|17||Hedydipna||Collared Sunbird||Hedydipna collaris|
|18||Hirundinidae||Barn swallow||Hirundo rustica|
|19||Hirundinidae||Red Rumped swallow||Cecropis daurica|
|20||Malaconotidae||Long-tailed Shrike||Lanius schach|
|21||Megalaimidae||Blue throat barbet||Megalaima asiatica|
|22||Muscicapidae||Blue fronted Redstard||Phoenicurus frontalis|
|23||Muscicapidae||Common Stone Chat||Saxicola torquatus|
|24||Muscicapidae||Slaty Flycatcher||Melaenornis fischeri|
|25||Muscicapidae||Spotted flycatcher||Melaenornis striata|
|26||Muscicapidae||Indian Bush Robin||Saxicoloides fulicatus|
|27||Musicapidae||Asian Brown Flycatcher||Muscicapa dauurica|
|28||Musicapidae||Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher||Culicicapa ceylonensis|
|29||Musicapidae||Verditer Flycatcher||Eumyias thalassina|
|30||Oriolidae||Indian Golden Oriole||Oriolus kundoo|
|31||Passeridae||Eurasian Tree Sparrow||Passer montanus|
|33||Passeridae||Long-tailed Minivet||Pericrocotus ethologus|
|34||Passeridae||Paddy field Pipit||Anthus rufulus|
|35||Passeridae||Scarlet Minivet||Pericrocotus flammeus|
|36||Passerines||Red-vented Bulbul||Pycnonotus cafer|
|37||Phylloscopidae||Scaly brested munia||Lonchura punctulata|
|38||Picidae||Fulvous Breasted Woodpecker||Dendrocopos macei|
|39||Ploceidae||Baya weaver||Ploceus philippinus|
|40||Psittaculidae||Alexandrine Parakeet||Psittacula eupatria|
|41||Psittaculidae||Ring-necked Parakeet||Psittacula krameri|
|42||Ramphastide||Great Barbet||Megalaima virens|
|43||Strigidae||Asian Barred owlet||Glaucidium cuculoides|
|44||Strigidae||Common owlet||Athene brama|
|45||Strigidae||Spotted owlet||Athene brama|
|46||Sturnidae||Common myna||Acridotheres tristis|
|47||Sturnidae||Jungle myna||Acridotheres fuscus|
|48||Sylviidae||Grey-hooded Warbler||Seicercus xanthoschistos|
|49||Sylviidae||Jungle Babbler||Turdoides striatus|
|50||Sylviidae||Tickell’s Leaf Warbler||Phylloscopus affinis|
|51||Turdidae||Oriental magpie robin||Copsychus saularis|
|52||Turdidae||Pied Bushchat||Saxicola caprata|
The list of the butterfly and their respective family
|S.No.||Family||Common Name||Scientific Name|
|1||Hesperiidae||Tricolor Pied Flat||Coladenia indrani|
|2||Lycaenidae||White Banded Hedge Blue||Lycaenopsis iranspectus|
|3||Nymphalidae||Common Jester||Symbrenthia lilaea|
|4||Nymphalidae||Common leopard||Phalanta phalantha|
|5||Nymphalidae||Common Sailor||Neptis hylas|
|6||Nymphalidae||Common Tiger||Danaus geutia|
|7||Nymphalidae||Danaid Eggfly||Hypolimiini misippus|
|8||Nymphalidae||Indian Crow||Euploea core|
|9||Nymphalidae||Indian Fritillary||Argynnis hyperbius|
|10||Nymphalidae||Indian Tortoise Shell||Aglais kaschmirensis|
|11||Nymphalidae||Lemon Pansy||Junonia lemonias|
|12||Nymphalidae||Peacock pansy||Junonai almana|
|13||Nymphalidae||Plain Tiger||Danus chrysippus|
|14||Nymphalidae||Yellow Coaster||Acraea issoria|
|15||Nymphalidae||Yellow Pancy||Junonia hierta|
|16||papilionidae||Common blue bottle||Graphium sarpedon|
|17||Papilionidae||Common mermon||Papili memmon|
|18||Papilionidae||Common Rose||Pachiopta aristolochiae|
|19||Papilionidae||Common Windmill||Atrophaneura polyeuctes|
|20||Pieridae||Grass yellow||Eurema hecabe|
|21||Pieridae||Indian Cabbage white||Pieris canidia|
|22||Pieridae.||Cabbage White||Pieris brassicae|
|23||Pieridae.||Common Brimstone||Gonepteryx ramni|
|24||Pieridae.||Dark Clouded yellow||Colias croceus|
Some photographic representation of the case study on birds and butterfly
|Using the net to capture the butterfly||T.U. Coronation garden|
|Some butterflies||Using the binoculars to identify the birds|
|The forest in the T.U. area||Common birds in the area|